The power to authorize membership of an international agreement may be tainted: in accordance with the Vienna Convention on Treaty Law, “ratification” defines the international act under which a country consents to participate in an international agreement. Ratification is proven by the filing of a ratification instrument with the custodian. This gives the contracting parties the time necessary to obtain approval of the agreement on the national territory and to adopt all the national legislation necessary to give effect to this agreement. The level of the NDC set by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only a “Name and Shame” system  or as UN Deputy Secretary General for Climate Change, J. Pésztor, CBS News (US), a “Name and Encouragement” plan.  Since the agreement has no consequences if countries do not live up to their commitments, such a consensus is fragile. A cattle of nations withdrawing from the agreement could trigger the withdrawal of other governments and lead to the total collapse of the agreement.  The Paris Agreement, as part of the Paris Agreement on Climate Change, also known as the Paris Climate Agreement or COP21, an international agreement, on behalf of the City of Paris, France, which adopted it in December 2015, which aimed to reduce gas emissions that contribute to global warming. The Paris agreement aimed to improve and replace the Kyoto Protocol, a previous international agreement to limit greenhouse gas emissions. It came into force on 4 November 2016 and was signed by 194 countries and ratified by 188 in November 2020.
It will also enable the contracting parties to gradually strengthen their contributions to the fight against climate change in order to achieve the long-term objectives of the agreement. InDCs become CNDs – nationally determined contributions – as soon as a country formally adheres to the agreement. There are no specific requirements as to how or how many countries should reduce emissions, but there were political expectations about the nature and rigour of the targets set by different countries. As a result, the scale and ambition of national plans vary widely, largely reflecting each country`s capacity, level of development and contribution to emissions over time. China, for example, has committed to cleaning up its CO2 emissions by 2030 at the latest and reducing CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) by 60-65% by 2030 from 2005 levels. India has set a target of reducing emissions intensity by 33-35% from 2005 levels by 2030 and producing 40% of its electricity from non-fossil fuels. Taking part in an election campaign promise, Trump – a climate denier who has claimed that climate change is a “hoax” perpetrated by China, announced in June 2017 his intention to withdraw the United States from the Paris Agreement.